Glasnik Etnografskog Instituta SANU
The Bulletin of the Institute of Ethnography SAS (I-VII)/ SASA (VIII/) is a scientific periodical of international significance which publishes papers in ethnology/anthropology. From its inception in 1952, the Bulletin publishes the results of scientific research projects of scientists and associates of the Institute and other affiliated institutions in the country and abroad. In addition, discussions and articles, supplements, field data, retrospectives, chronicles, reviews, translations, notes, bibliographies, obituaries, memories, critiques and similar are published as well. The Bulletin was founded as a means to publish the results of research of settlements and origins of populations, folk life, customs and folk proverbs. However, the concept of the Bulletin, like that of any other contemporary scientific journal, changed over time to accommodate the social, cultural and political processes and research trends in the social sciences and humanities.
The Bulletin (GEI) is referenced in the electronic bases: DOAJ (Directory of Open Access Journals), Ulrich's Periodicals Directory and SCIndex (Serbian Citation Index). All articles are digitally available in a form typographically true to the original (in .pdf format). The Bulletin is also available in the same form on the website of the Institute of Ethnography SASA.
The Bulletin (GEI SANU) can also be found and read at CEEOL (Central and Eastern European Online Library): http://www.ceeol.com
- Dress and fashion
- Fashion is a contemporary phenomenon, with an increasing role in shaping behavior in contemporary societies. Fashion influences many areas of human creativity, especially mode of dressing. Dressing usually assumes traditional costume, which somewhat stayed static during history. Starting with Renaissance period, Europe experienced frequent changes in fashion styles (all changes came later to Serbia). In its beginnings, fashion was accepted mostly by wealthier classes, but in time, it gradually became available to general population, becoming so a part of the "consumers mentality". This availability of the fashion industry facilitates to many a brief, sharp cut with past in a short period of time. And while costume was characterized by certain stability of forms and materials, fashion represents a completely different phenomenon. That is, fashion is characterized by instability of forms and constant changes, and by relatively short periods of duration of styles and contemporary dressing.
- E-museum publication in the system of on-line museum communication
- New IC technologies has expanded the notion and meaning of the museum publication. Comparing the position of museum publication in the system of general museology, the paper E-museum publication in the system of on-line museum communication revises the importance and role of e-museum publications in the system of on-line museum communication. Starting from the fact that the channels used by Serbian museums in on-line communication with virtual public are diverse, the adventages and limitations of mentioned media (e-museum publications) in transmission of museum informations and messages in the viral museum space and context are analyzed throughout the most prominent type of on-line museum communication - web sites. The results of the research (of 10 museum web sites) represent the underdeveloped and unfocused positioned e-museum publications in the system of on-line museum communication. In accordance to the results and recognized limitations the recommendations for its (potential) development are given in the paper.
- Economic life of Savina Monastery in the XVIII century
- The research of economy of Savina in the 18th century, the monastery that was a social and religious center of Orthodox people in Boka, opened up much wider cultural and social contexts of this area. The great treasury of unpublished archive materials had the decisive significance in this. It helped us understand not only the course of activities in the monastery itself, but also its role and significance in the local Orthodox community, characteristics of the life of local population under foreign Venetian rule, its tradition, needs and changes it was facing within the set social model and genius loci.
- Electronic folklore among teenagers
- The development of ICT media made way for a new form of folklore communication. Newly developed media, such as mobile phones, make it possible for their users to participate in electronically mediated communication, thus approaching the form of oral communication. The exchange of special type of SMS text messages represents a new way of transmitting contemporary folklore short forms. These messages use poetic language, they have standard style themes, patterns and formulas, and they form different genres and categories corresponding with already existing familiar folklore forms. The communication process that happens during the exchange of these messages also has folklore’s characteristics: it takes place within small groups, the communication is informal, the texts circulate in chain style, and undergo different transformation which generates the making of variants, etc. This form of electronic folklore is especially popular among teenagers, where it’s social functions and meanings are also most emphasized. Within this population, it adds to an older tradition of children’s written folklore poetry albums. Like poetry albums, SMS exchange influences the development of girls’ gender identity, providing also a socially defined channel for contacts between the sexes. It also functions as a mechanism of socialization and stratification within the group. At the same time, it creates a new field of meaning, which derives from the very media’s novelty and significance. In this sense, the exchange of SMS represents a symbolic act of acknowledging one’s belonging to the group of mobile telephone users. In this way, a new phenomenon is being symbolically processed through a new form of folklore.
- Entrepreneurs in transitional Serbia - the context of management and socially accepted type of private enterprise
- The process of post-socialist transformation in Serbia included, among other things, a boost of selfemployed entrepreneurship looking to place themselves within a society. This phenomenon occurred within the complex conditions that included the past socialist heritage and egalitarian ideology, representing thus a potential a priori negative social attitudes towards private enterprise and entrepreneurs, as well as specific overall transition path that can be divided into two distinct and disparate stages. This particular context has influenced the complexity of the problem of entrepreneurship in this society. Therefore, this paper will firstly focus on the context and conditions of entrepreneurial business from the perspective of the very entrepreneurs; additionally, the paper will try to discern the socially accepted types of entrepreneurs, favoring the assumption that this type of economy, in principle, has been accepted, i.e., there is no social resistance. The discussion is based on analysis of newspaper articles that provide detailed written accounts, while the context of entrepreneurial business in transitional Serbia is based on data provided by the Union of Employers of Serbia, the Agency of Business Registers and reports of the National Agency for Regional Development of the Republic of Serbia.
- Entrepreneurship as a mode of integration
- This paper is exploring refugee entrepreneurship as a possible mode of integration in the host society. Since integration is complex and dynamic process we use multidisciplinary perspective on migration. The paper is based on the qualitative research through three focus group discussions with former refugee entrepreneurs from Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia in Belgrade. They are co-ethnic migrants who make the vast majority of population that fled to Serbia in the 1990s from the former Yugoslav republics. The findings give insight into insertion of former refugees into the labour market through self-employment and entrepreneurship. It centres on the small business development strategies through three topics: the market opportunities and motives for entering into entrepreneurship, human capital and social networks and institutional and societal environment. We find that for starting and developing businesses, which is an emergency solution, the focus group participants mostly rely on family members and refugees’ social networks. Later strategies of the entrepreneurship development that significantly use market opportunities, access to open market and transnational activities, have been also outlined.
- Ethnic identity
- In this paper the author deals with the issue of ethnic identification of the contemporary Serbian community / national minority in Hungary. Several aspects of the problem are taken into account: self-identification, symbols of identity and the criteria of belonging to the group, dual identity and the distance "us:them"
- Ethnicity and integration in the historical context
- The relationship between an ethnicity and different phases of integration (adaptation, acculturation, assimilation) of the Serbian ethnic community in Timisoara is being discussed in various historical periods (the Turkish, Austro-Hungarian and Romanian periods), with an emphasis on an administrative division, space segregation and social mobility of the Serbian population. The analysis shows that the Serbs in Timisoara have been exposed to various kinds of acculturation and assimilation which have sometimes been aggressive, resulting in decrease of the Serbian population. In spite of these facts, the Serbs are nevertheless solidly integrated in the socio-economic life of the city, preserving at the same time, specific cultural characteristics and maintaining a network of institutions of various kinds that affect social life of the community, at the level of the city and the state.
- Ethnicity, Contemporary Processes in Serbia, Neighboring Countries and Diaspora
- Сажетак Етницитет је од седамдесетих година XX века постао предмет бројних истраживања у друштвеним наукама, али сам феномен као да још увек измиче прецизном дефинисању и тумачењу. Етницитет је недовољно добро схваћен и протумачен у теорији, a у пракси често бива предмет политичкихманипулација. Разумевање овог феномена осцилира између крајности есенцијализације и потпуне релативизације, па и негирања, док се испољавање етницитета у реалности креће од интеретничке комуникације и солидарности до драматичних конфликата, који могу да иду све до геноцида.
- Ethno-cultural duality and, ethnic, stereotypes
- A construction of an individual identity, in dual ethno-cultural environments, is often based on a premise that an ethnic identity is a primary human determinant. In such dual ethno-cultural communities, a basic ethnic stereotype could be called „relational“: it is founded on the concept of „Others/We-group“ distinction, where the Others appear as a main reason for the existence of the We-group members who use the distinction. This stereotype is based on the following premises: the first one says that a local socio-cultural reality contains two solid ethno-cultural groups, whereas the other suggests that in a local context, there exist just „They“ as a solid ethno-cultural group while among „Us“ the solidity is in fact, limited to ethnic affiliation. The consequence of the attitude is pervasive presentation of intra-ethnic differences, more than mere stereotyping of the Others. These stereotypes are based on the so-called „homeland“ classifications and appear to represent a small ethnography of ideas and images on what constitutes and makes a local ethnic community. The stereotypes of this particular kind are more often seen among members of Serbian ethnic group, at least based on a research in two local communities - Bečej and Seleuš. In the two communities, the prevailing attitudes on intra-ethnic differences and the stereotypes developed out of the differences are more numerous and elaborated, based on the „homeland“ classification. This cultural, cognitive process is a consequence of intertwining of two perspectives in understanding of the We-group. The first perspective narrates about the We-group ethnic background, and the second emphasizes the group domicile, that is, it defines the We-group in space. The first perspective is founded, more or less, on indispensable experience of an ethnic identity, while the other perspective is more based on empirical experience; the second perspective is also a creation of a symbolic construction, the same as an image on an ethnic identity per se.
- Ethno-cultural stereotypes in the function of local identities
- The paper discusses various problems in regional identities of ethnic and other groups in Serbia. According to the author, a forming and maintenance of local identities is under a heavy influence of stereotypes held by one group towards the other, neighboring groups, where ethno-demographic, historical and socioeconomic features also play the role. Cultural and character features of a group stand out as markers of the group homogeneity; these markers also serve to differentiate a group from another, while humor is cited as a primary way to express a stereotype. The author further discusses long lasting and slow changes in stereotyping, and argues that stereotypes could be overcome with a more even distribution of existential means along side better understanding of ethno-cultural characteristics of an ethnicity. The research in Serbia confirms inter-dependency of local identities and stereotypes; this, in turn, creates conditions for forming cultural types of population (in this case the Goranci and Era) which represent local cultures and carriers of local identities.
- The beginnings of ethnobotanical investigations, viewed through the prism of time, are deemed to belong to the first explorers and adventurers of the Old Con tinent. They were the first to bring, from their voyages, the information about use of plants in native populations. However, the 19 century brings the precision, scrutiny and accuracy in research. It was in 1873 that the term "aboriginal botany" was used the first time in academia, and only a few years later the new term "ethno-botany" was introduced and defined. In the course of the twentieth century the interest in ethnobotany begins to rise rapidly and the scientists, besides in the use of plants, are also interested in the manner in which people notice and manage them, as well as in the mutual relation between the human community and plants which they depend on. The major basic focus of this discipline is actually the botanical lore of tra ditional indigenous peoples. Generations of biologists and anthropologists are trying to learn and study various aspects of the "ethno-scientific knowledge", and to establish and explain the difference between ethnobotanical evidence and the tradi tional knowledge. Therefore there are nowadays three main approaches in the study of traditional botanical knowledge: utilitarian, cognitive, and ecological approaches. The study of TBK is primarily based on the attempt to understand the traditional use of plants so that in co-operation with scientific knowledge of the Western civilization we could more easily collect and keep the ethnobotanical facts to be realized in various projects as a result of the integration of these Systems. The goals of such projects is to secure the rural development and preserva tion of traditional cultures, as well as the protection of biodiversity while also helping the Western science in discovering new drugs and raw materials invaluable to this world. Ethnobotany is the science in its infancy but it can offer much to the mod em mankind, both in the study of our past and in preservation of its traces in many traditional societies. Our task is to preserve - in co-operation with local populations throughout the world - the precious ethnobotanical material and to make attempts to help the modem man in the eternal struggle for health, time, and life.